What is sass?
Sass ( Syntactically Awesome Style Sheets) is an advanced CSS language, colloquially known as a CSS processor. Sass essentially helps web design and is actually a plugin for CSS. By using Sass, you can use features such as variables, functions, modules, and powerful preprocessors for CSS that provide you with more capabilities than traditional CSS.
With Sass, you can make your CSS code much simpler and more readable, as well as experience higher performance in loading your web pages. For example, Sass allows you to store color and size values in variables and use them throughout your CSS document. This allows you to easily format your code and easily apply the changes you want.
Sass is a styling method that can be translated into a css file. The reason for using Sass instead of css is that by using Sass you can write shorter codes.
CSS is one of the most important languages used in web development, which is used to set the shape and appearance of web pages. Using CSS, you can specify how your web page elements should be displayed, including colors, fonts, borders, backgrounds, and more.
To read more about CSS and how to use it in web projects, you can refer to the article What is a virtual server or VPS?
Advantages of using Sass
Sass allows you to enhance your CSS code using several advanced and professional features. I will mention some of these features below:
1- Reduce the size of CSS files
Sass allows you to write CSS codes more compactly using concepts such as mixins and nesting and more flexibly control changes in the future, which leads to a reduction in the size of CSS files.
Using Sass can reduce the size of your CSS files because Sass allows you to automatically generate parts of your CSS code.
2- Better organization
By using nesting in Sass, you can make your CSS code indexed and organized.
Sass is a CSS preprocessor that allows developers to use features like nesting, variables, and mixins. By using nesting in Sass, you can create organized and better-organized CSS rules.
In Sass, nesting means you can nest and organize CSS rules inside each other. For example, let’s say you have two divs with IDs ” header ” and “nav ” and you want to customize both with CSS. In traditional CSS, you have to specify the ID of each and write the CSS rules:
Now while in Sass, you can nest these two :
3- The possibility of using mixins
Mixins in Sass are one of the useful features for writing complex and reusable CSS codes. With the help of mixins, you can define a number of CSS properties in a certain place and reuse them in other parts of your code.
By using mixins, you can exploit repetitive designs simply and with minimal repetition. In addition, mixins allow you to define changes that should be applied to a property at a specific location and will be automatically updated in all parts that use the mixin. Mixins allow you to reuse pieces of your code and make your CSS code shorter and more maintainable.
With Sass, you can easily manage complex CSS code using tools and concepts like variables, mixins, and loops.
Overall, using mixins in Sass makes your CSS code more readable and maintainable.
In fact, Sass supports two types of functions:
Sass built-in functions include functions defined by Sass itself and provided to you. These functions allow you to process your data using more complex CSS methods. For example, there are functions to convert color values, calculate numeric values, or even process strings in Sass.
– Custom functions
Also, Sass allows you to create your own custom functions to use in your projects. These functions are designed to process your specific data and are available to call in other parts of your Sass code. In other words, by creating custom functions, you can add new functionality to Sass and improve the way your CSS is processed.
Overall, using functions in Sass is a very powerful feature that allows you to improve your CSS code and make it much more maintainable.
Sass allows you to create more complex functions to use in your CSS; This feature allows you to improve your CSS code and make it more maintainable.
In this example, the nesting structure allows you to improve the organization of your CSS code.
5- Support of variables
One of the important features of Sass is the ability to define variables. By using variables in Sass, you can collect style settings in one place and use them throughout the project. By defining variables for colors, fonts, different sizes, etc., you can write your CSS codes in a replaceable and better management way.
Sass allows you to define the values used in your CSS code as variables; This feature allows you to improve your CSS code and make it more maintainable.
6- Support of mathematical operators
Sass lets you do math in your CSS code. Using this possibility, you can calculate your dimensions, volumes, and tools accurately and using mathematical formulas. Sass allows you to change values more easily using mathematical operators in CSS.
For example, you can enhance your CSS code with Sass variables and math operators as follows :
sass training, a complete guide to get started
Sass is a powerful tool for creating and managing web styles that can be translated into CSS. Here’s a complete guide to getting started with Sass:
1. Install Sass
To get started with Sass, you must first install Sass on your system. Sass is available to install from the command line or using a software package manager such as npm, yarn, etc. To install Sass, follow these steps:
Sass is built on top of Node.js, so you need to install Node.js on your system. You can download and install the appropriate version for your operating system from the Node.js download page (https://nodejs.org/en/download/). To read more about what Node.js is, refer to the relevant page.
-Install Sass using npm
npm (Node.js Package Manager) is one of the best ways to install Sass. After installing Node.js, you can enter the following command in your terminal:
This command installs Sass for use at the operating system level. To verify that Sass is installed, run the `sass –version’ command. If you see the correct Sass version, Sass installation has been successful.
To use Sass, you need to create a new Sass file and put your CSS code in it. Then convert your Sass file to a CSS file using the `sass` command.
Note that you must specify the address of your Sass file as well as the address of the output CSS file.
That’s all! Now you can easily install Sass and use it in your projects. If necessary, you can also refer to other Sass tutorials to improve your CSS projects using Sass.
2. Create a Sass file
After installing Sass, you need to create your own Sass file. A Sass file has the extension .scss or .sass. After creating the file, you can use the Sass syntax.
To create a Sass file, follow the steps below:
– Create a new file
First, you need to create a new file in the desired folder. For example, you can create a “style.scss” file.
-Start coding Sass
Now you can start coding in your Sass file. You can use more advanced features like variables, functions, mixins, and operator processors. For example, you can create a variable for the background color of the page:
In this example, `$bg-color` is a Sass variable whose value is set to `#f5f5f5`. Then, we use this variable in the `body’ style definition to set its background color.
– Save the Sass file
After writing your Sass code, you need to save it. The Sass file is saved with the `.scss` extension. For example, save the `style. scss` file in your desired folder.
Now you have a new Sass file that you can use to define the styles and formatting of your pages. If necessary, you can also refer to other Sass tutorials to improve your CSS projects using Sass.
3- Writing site codes
With Sass, you can write code that is translatable to CSS. These codes include variables, functions, conditionals, loops, and other features that are not present in CSS.
Sass is an advanced CSS language that allows you to write the most complex CSS rules more simply using features like variables, mixins, and functions.
To write Sass code, you must first download and install Sass. Then create your Sass file and write Sass rules in it. for example:
In this example, first, a $primary-color variable is defined. In the navigation section, ul and li functions are used. Also, the desired color is defined in the tag using the $primary-color variable.
After writing your Sass code, you need to convert it to CSS. For this purpose, you can use the Sass command in the command line to convert the Sass file to a CSS file. Also, you can use online Sass conversion tools.
3- Compile Sass to CSS
After writing the Sass codes, you need to translate them into CSS. For this, you can use Sass compilation tools such as the Sass command line or visual tools such as CodeKit and Prepros.
To compile Sass to CSS, you can use a few different methods:
-Using the sass command in the command line
You can use the sass command on the command line to convert your Sass file to a CSS file. To do this, navigate to the folder containing your Sass file and then enter the following command:
sass input.scss output.css
In this command, input.scss is the name of your Sass file and output.css is the name of your output CSS file. Sass will automatically generate the output CSS file and your CSS codes will be placed in it.
– Using online services
You can use Sass online services such as SassMeister ( https://www.sassmeister.com/ ), CodePen ( https://codepen.io/ ), and Sass.js ( https://medialize.github.io/sass .js/ ). Using these services, you can edit your Sass codes in the browser and generate the output CSS file online.
– Using Sass plugins in web applications
Most web applications such as VSCode, Sublime Text, and Atom support Sass plugins that allow you to edit your Sass file in-app and automatically generate the output CSS file.
Using one of these methods, you can easily convert your Sass to CSS and use it in your projects.
4- Loading CSS
If you want to use the link tag in HTML to load a CSS file converted from Sass, it is best to convert the Sass file to a CSS file and then add the generated CSS file to your web page. For example, suppose your Sass file named styles.sass is located in the css folder, to convert it to a CSS file named styles.css, you can use the following command:
`sass CSS/styles.sass css/styles.css`
Then add the styles.css file to your HTML pages:
With this command, your CSS file will be loaded as the default style of your HTML page.
Also, you can use visual tools like CodeKit and Prepros to automate the process of translating Sass to CSS and loading it into HTML pages. These tools allow you to modify your Sass file and then automatically load the generated CSS file into your project.
Using Sass, you can easily create powerful styles for your website using its advanced features.
sass is a styling method that can be translated into a CSS file.
The reason for using Sass instead of CSS is that you can write shorter codes using Sass.
Another Sass feature is nested writing. You can define elements inside each other and style them separately from other sections.
Another interesting feature of sass is the ability to write functions and mixins. By using function and mixin, you can avoid repeating code. This will both increase your coding speed and make code debugging faster and easier and even make it easier for us to apply changes when making changes.
To install sass, if you have npm (node package manager) on your system, just enter the command line and execute the following command:
npm install -g sass
Note: HTML or HyperText Markup Language is the main web programming language used to create web pages. Using HTML, you can define different parts of a web page, add images, audio, and video files to the page, create data entry forms, and add many other features to your pages.
In fact, HTML is used to structure and display information on web pages, and Sass is one of the tools used to optimize and simplify CSS codes. In general, both HTML and Sass are very useful for designing websites, and by using them together, you can create beautiful, organized, and efficient web pages. For more information, visit the What is HTML page.
6- The second method of installing sass
To ensure that Sass is installed, you can create the following command.
If it is installed, it will show you its version, otherwise, it will give a message about the absence of sass.
After installing Sass, you can use it in your projects. The SASS file is not understandable for the browser, to translate SASS to CSS, you can open the command enter the folder where the SASS file is located, and run the following command :
sass –watch style.scss:style.css
Actually, This command says to watch the sass file, as soon as changes are made in the sass file (which we named style.scss here ), translate it and put it in a file called style.css in the same path. The name of the source and destination file is completely up to you and you can use any name you like.
Any part of the code that has an error and cannot be translated will help you to fix the error by displaying the type of error and the corresponding line number, Until the error is fixed, the file will not be compiled and the page elements will be messed up and without style. are displayed.
In order to create a compressed CSS file at the same time as compile, you can also use the following command: sass –watch –style=compressed style.scss:style.css
Using variables in Sass for better CSS coding
Sass is a CSS preprocessor that allows programmers to enhance CSS code using variables, formulas, and other scripted features. By using variables in Sass, you can avoid code repetition and improve your code.
To use variables in Sass, you must first define your variables. For example, you can define a variable for the main color of the page and a variable for the font size of the page title. for example:
You can then use these variables in all of your Sass content. For example, to set the background color of the page header using the $primary-color variable, you can use the following code:
By using variables in Sass, you can improve your CSS code and quickly make changes throughout your site.
Use Sass functions to make CSS code more dynamic
Sass functions are a powerful feature of the Sass language that allows you to create more dynamic CSS code. Using Sass functions, you can pass values as parameters to functions and then get CSS code output based on functions’ internal calculations.
For example, suppose you want to write a Sass function to determine the font size based on the user’s monitor size. You can use your own Sass function and calculate the default font value for any page size. For example, suppose you want the font size to be 16 pixels for a page width of 1000 pixels, and 20 pixels for a page width of 1200 pixels. In this case, you could write the following Sass function:
This function receives a parameter named `$screen-width` which gives the width of the screen as input to the function. The function then sets `$base-font-size’ as the base font size, and then calculates a new value for the font size using the aspect ratio. Here, for every additional 250 pixels in screen width, 4 pixels are added to the font size.
To use this function in your Sass code, you can use the @include directive to call the function and output it as the value you want. for example:
In this example, the function `calculate-font-size’ is called with the parameter `1200′, which calculates the value of `$font-size’ for pages with a width of 1200 pixels. Then the output of the function is used as the font size for the `h1′ title.
The difference between Sass and Less, which one to choose?
Both Sass and Less are tools that help you make your CSS code more dynamic using CSS preprocessors. However, both tools have differences that need to be considered.
Mixins in Sass are one of the powerful features that allow you to consider different parts of your CSS code in an integrated and default way and avoid repetition and duplication of codes. Using mixins, you can define a series of properties and then use these properties as a unit throughout your CSS.
For example, let’s say you want to have classes with different buttons for different parts of your website, such as the “read more”, “register” and “login” buttons. Here, you can create a mixin to style your buttons and then use this mixin in all your CSS fields. For example, suppose you define a mixin called `button-style` with the following content:
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In this mixin, you have defined 2 parameters “$bg-color” and “$text-color” as background color and button text color. Also, you’ve added a bunch of features to your buttons, including padding, corner shapes, mouseovers, and animations.
CSS preprocessors, Is Sass the best choice for your web projects?
Each web project faces its own conditions and needs, and therefore the use of CSS preprocessors should also be determined based on these conditions and needs. In many cases, Sass is recognized as one of the top CSS preprocessors. But in some cases, like small projects, using Sass is probably not necessary and using plain CSS is enough.
Some Sass features that make significant improvements to CSS include:
- Using variables in Sass helps CSS coding and makes CSS code simpler.
- The ability to use Sass functions makes CSS codes more dynamic and changeable.
- Using mixins in Sass significantly improves CSS code stability and makes CSS code easier to manage.
- The ability to use descriptions and comments in Sass helps coders to create more readable code.
Overall, Sass is one of the popular CSS preprocessors used in many web projects. However, project-specific circumstances should always be considered when deciding which CSS preprocessor is best suited for your particular project.
Improve loading efficiency of web pages using Sass
Using Sass can improve the loading efficiency of web pages in some cases. This is because Sass allows you to write your CSS code more efficiently and use fewer HTTP requests.
One of the ways Sass helps improve performance is by using small CSS snippets instead of a larger CSS file. This way, the browser can get only the parts of the file it needs, instead of downloading the whole file.
Also, Sass allows you to compress your CSS files, which can help improve page loading speed.
Sass also uses CSS optimization techniques such as minification, which reduces CSS code to a smaller size, which can help speed up page loading.
In general, using Sass allows you to write your CSS code in a more optimized way, which can help improve the loading efficiency of web pages.
Designing better web templates using Sass
Using Sass in designing web templates can significantly improve the quality and speed of work. In the following, we will examine some of the advantages of using Sass in the design of web templates:
1. Better Organized Codes: By using Sass, you can organize your CSS codes in a better way and easily access them to make changes in the future.
2. Reduce repetition in code: Sass allows easy use of common parts in code. In this way, you can avoid repeating codes and write simpler and more optimized codes for your site.
3. Using variables: With Sass, you can use variables in your CSS code. This allows you to use basic design choices, which is very useful in many cases to create a principled and efficient design.
4. Using mixins: Sass allows you to use mixins. It allows you to write your CSS code in a dynamic and customizable way. Mixins allow you to define a set of CSS properties in one place and then use them in your other code.
5. Reducing the size of CSS files: Sass allows you to write your CSS codes in a more compact and smaller way.
The efficiency of web projects using Sass
Using Sass can help the efficiency of your web projects in two ways:
– Increasing the loading speed of web pages
Sass can help your users improve the loading efficiency of web pages by reducing the size of CSS files that are automatically generated, increasing the loading speed of web pages and reducing the loading time of pages.
– Improve maintainability
Using Sass helps developers manage more complex CSS code with ease because Sass allows CSS code to be organized using variables and mixins, improving maintainability and development. This advantage also helps in the stable and more optimal development of WordPress templates and themes.
Advantages and disadvantages of using Sass in commercial projects
Using Sass in business projects can be very useful and effective, but as with any tool, it has its pros and cons. Next, we will examine the advantages and disadvantages of using Sass in commercial projects:
1- Reducing code writing time: Sass allows the user to write and manage their code faster and better than before by using variables, mixins, functions, and other advanced features.
2- Reduction of writing errors: By using Sass, writing errors that may occur in CSS are minimized.
3- Ability to return to previous versions: Sass allows the user to easily return to previous versions of their code and apply their changes if needed.
4- Increasing stability: Sass, by using mixins, functions, and other advanced features, allows the user to create stable, extensible, and higher-quality code for his project.
1- Need time to learn: To use Sass correctly and fully, it requires time and effort to learn those advanced features and capabilities.
2- Problems in the translation phase: In some cases, there may be problems in the translation phase of Sass code to CSS that need to be solved.
3- Possibility of loading speed problems: Using Sass and adding new files causes speed problems.
How Sass helps CSS coders code more efficiently
Sass is a CSS preprocessor that helps CSS coders code more efficiently. Unlike CSS, which is a high-level language and involves a lot of code repetition, Sass allows your CSS code to be written more automatically and with shorter code.
Using Sass allows coders to use concepts such as variables, functions, iterators, conditional processors, and mixins. By using these concepts, coders can reduce repetition, make their codes simpler and more understandable, and as a result, create more dynamic and extensible code.
In addition, Sass allows your CSS to be written hierarchically, using nesting, interactivity, and inheritance. These advantages allow coders to improve code in a better way for better structure and extensibility.
As a result, Sass helps CSS coders write simpler code, avoid wasting more time and effort on code duplication, and create more dynamic code for their web projects.